What is the role of pharmaceutical companies in propagating AMR?
Unchecked manufacturing discharge into water systems has had a major impact not only on the safety of those water sources, but also on the people and animals that encounter the resistant bacteria. This problem is particularly salient in India and China where most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are manufactured (Changing Markets, 2016).
Studies from Hyderabad in India have shown that concentrations of pharmaceuticals routinely exceed the maximum regulatory limits or safe exposure levels (Larsson et al., 2007). Point-source pollution occurs when APIs and finished-dose antibiotics are produced in specific areas and cause excessively high concentrations which, in turn, encourages the development of drug resistance. Vulnerable populations living near manufacturing facilities and wastewater treatment plants are the most at risk for the damaging impacts of resistance. (Lübbert et al., 2017) (Al Jazeera, 2016) (Larsson, 2014)